Administrator

Administrator

Wednesday, 12 September 2018

Sepsis

Sepsis symptoms in children under five

Go straight to A&E or call 999 if your child has any of these Symptoms:

  • Looks mottled, bluish or pale
  • Is very lethargic or difficult to wake
  • Feels abnormally cold to touch
  • Is breathing very fast
  • Has a rash that does not fade when you press it
  • Has a fit or convulsion

Get medical advice urgently from NHS 111

If your child has any of the symptoms listed below, is getting worse or is sicker than you'd expect (even if their temperature falls), trust your instincts and seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111.

Temperature

  • Temperature over 38C in babies under 3 months
  • Temperature over 39C in babies aged three to 6 months
  • Any high temperature in a child who cannot be encouraged to show interest in anything
  • Low temperature (below 36C – check 3 times in a 10-minute period)

Breathing

  • Finding it much harder to breathe than normal – looks like hard work
  • Making "grunting" noises with every breath
  • Can't say more than a few words at once (for older children who normally talk)
  • Breathing that obviously "pauses"

Toilet/nappies

  • Not had a wee or wet nappy for 12 hours

Eating and drinking

  • New baby under 1 month old with no interest in feeding
  • Not drinking for more than 8 hours (when awake)
  • Bile-stained (green), bloody or black vomit/sick

Activity and body

  • Soft spot on a baby's head is bulging
  • Eyes look "sunken"
  • Child cannot be encouraged to show interest in anything
  • Baby is floppy
  • Weak, "whining" or continuous crying in a younger child
  • Older child who's confused
  • Not responding or very irritable
  • Stiff neck, especially when trying to look up and down

If your child has any of these symptoms, is getting worse or is sicker than you'd expect (even if their temperature falls), trust your instincts and seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111.

Sepsis symptoms in older children and adults

Early symptoms

Early symptoms of sepsis may include:

  • A high temperature (fever) or low body temperature
  • Chills and shivering
  • A fast heartbeat
  • Fast breathing

Many of the symptoms of sepsis are also associated with meningitis. The first symptoms of meningitis are often fever, vomiting, headache and feeling unwell.

Septic shock

In some cases, symptoms of more severe sepsis or septic shock (when your blood pressure drops to a dangerously low level) develop soon after.

These can include:

  • Feeling dizzy or faint
  • A change in mental state – such as confusion or disorientation
  • diarrhoea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Severe muscle pain
  • Severe breathlessness
  • Less urine production than normal – for example, not urinating for a day
  • Cold, clammy and pale or mottled skin
  • Loss of consciousness

When to get medical help

Seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111 if you've recently had an infection or injury and you have possible early signs of sepsis.

If sepsis is suspected, you'll usually be referred to hospital for further diagnosis and treatment.

Severe sepsis and septic shock are medical emergencies. If you think you or someone in your care has one of these conditions, go straight to A&E or call 999.

Reference:
NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/sepsis/

The following courses are currently running at Kendleshire Golf Club near Bristol. Please follow the links to view dates and availability for each particular course. If you are booking a course for the first time, you will be automatically registered with our site. 

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All our Emergency First Aid at Work and First Aid at Work (EFAW/FAW) courses are Qualsafe Awarded and comply to the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QA and QCF). Some courses are also CPD Certified. Please see each specific course for more details.

 

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Once you have booked your course, you will receive an email and information pack containing all the information you will need for the day, including directions.

 

Cancellations and refunds

If you need to cancel your booking please let us know within 7 days of your course date in order to be eligble for a full refund. Unfortunately we are not able to offer a refund if you cancel outside of that term and the full amount will apply. However, we can reschedule your paid for booking for another date at no additional cost or administration fee.

 

Important

Photo identification will be required to be presented on the day to verify your course booking. Clothing should be worn that is suitable for performing practical exercises, some of which will be on the floor. On the day candidates will be required to successfully complete practical and theory assessments.

 

If the course you are looking for is not currently on offer, please get in touch as we can tailor-make courses to suit your needs.

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

Monday, 3 March 2014

QOF Exam

Quality Standards Exam for GPs and Dentists

 

Healthcare organisations have an obligation to provide a high-quality resuscitation service, and to ensure that their staff are trained and updated regularly to a level of proficiency appropriate to each individual's expected role.

 

The Resuscitation Council have laid out the Quality Standards for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Practice and Training as per the QOF (Quality and Outcomes Framework). First Response are making this exam available to support these standards and the training we deliver.

 

The exam comprises 14 sections of multiple choice questions. GP Surgeries need only complete Sections 1-6 (Primary Care & Primary Dental Care Resuscitation). Dental Practices should complete all sections (Primary Care & Primary Dental Care Resuscitation and Primary Dental Care Medical Emergencies).

 

The exam will take about an hour, is completely confidential, and gains you accredited CPD points for a successful pass. Once a 100% pass rate is achieved, your pass certificate will be emailed to you within a couple of days.

 

Please select your category from the links below to go the exam:

 

 

Thursday, 19 April 2012

Unconsciousness

Unconsciousness:

Description:

Someone who is unconscious is not asleep. Unconsciousness is caused by illness, injury or emotional shock.

 

Signs and Symptoms:

There are many levels of unconsciousness. Some are more serious than others. Levels include episodes that are:

  • Brief – Examples are fainting or blacking out.
  • Longer – The patient is incoherent when roused.
  • Prolonged – A person in a coma, for example, can be motionless and not at all aware of his or her surroundings for a long time.

 

It may vary in depth from deep unconsciousness when no response can be obtained, through to lesser degrees of unconsciousness when the patient can be roused by speech or painful stimuli.[Source: Baillieres Nurses Dictionary: 23rd Edition page 405].

 

We measure the patient's level of consciousness by using the acronym 'AVPU':

 

  • A = Alert: The patient is fully alert and is able to answer questions clearly.
  • V = Voice: Confused, Inappropriate Words, Utter Sounds, No Verbal Response.
  • P = Pain: Responds to painful stimuli or no response.
  • U = Unconscious: No response from patient.

 

Causes:

There are 10 primary causes that can have an effect on a patient. They can easily be remembered by using the mnemonic 'FISH SHAPED':

 

  • F = Fainting
  • I  = Imbalance of heat
  • S = Shock
  • H = Head Injury

 

  • S = Stroke
  • H = Heart Attack
  • A = Asphyxia
  • P = Poisoning
  • E = Epilepsy
  • D = Diabetes

 

Management of The Unconscious Patient

An unconscious patient is unable to give an account of what has happened to them. Try and gain as much history from those at the scene and from any injuries sustained as to what may of happened.

 

CAUTION:

  • Never leave an unconscious patient unattended other than to get help or dial 999.
  • Maintain a good airway at ALL times.
  • Constant monitoring patient has a good airway.

 

Carry out a Primary & Secondary Survey.

 

 

We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.

 

You might also be interested in our blog. One of our more popular articles is about recognising a siezure.

 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

 

Tuesday, 8 May 2012

Spinal Injuries

Spinal Injuries:

Description:

Spinal injuries can involve many parts of the back and or neck (the weakest part). Trauma can include injury to bones (vertebrae), muscles, ligaments, or the spinal cord, which is the most serious are to damage.

 

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage or trauma to the spinal cord that results in a loss or impaired function causing reduced mobility or feeling. The cords is about 18 inches long and extends from the base of the brain to about the waist.

 

The nerves situated in the spinal cord are called upper motor neurons and their function is to carry messages backwards and forwards to and from the brain. The nerves that branch out from the spinal cord to other parts of the body are called lower motor neurons and they communicate with specific areas of the body, some to initiate movement and others to provide sensation such as pain and temperature. The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for loss of function to occur. In most people with SCI the cord is intact but the cellular damage to it results in loss of function.

 

The Vertebra is a ring of bones surrounding the spinal cord and constitute the spinal column more commonly known as the back bones. It is possible for someone to ‘break their neck’ yet not sustain a spinal cord injury.

 

The vertebrae are named according to their location:

 

There are eight Cervical C1 to C8. Cervical SCI usually causes loss of function in the arms and legs-quadriplegia. There are 12 Thoracic (chest) vertebrae. Injuries in this region usually effect chest and legs –paraplegia. Lumbar vertebrae L1 to L5 and the Sacral Vertebrae S1 to S5. Injuries here usually results in some loss of function in hips and legs.

 

When to suspect a spinal Injury

 

The most important indicator is what we call the ‘mechanism of injury’. How and what has happened to the patient involve in trauma. We are looking for any abnormal forces which may have been exerted on the back or neck. Such examples can be seen below:

  • Blow to the head, neck or back.
  • Falling from a height.
  • Awkward fall whilst doing gymnastics or trampolining.
  • Diving into a shallow pool and hitting the bottom.
  • Thrown from a horse.
  • Heavy object falling across the back.
  • Multiple injuries.
  • Thrown from a motor bike.
  • High speed RTC (Road Traffic Collision).

 

These are but a few examples.

 

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Pain or tenderness in the neck or back at or near the site of injury.
  • Loss of control over limbs, movement restricted.
  • Loss of feeling, sensation in limbs.
  • Pins and needles or burning in the limbs.
  • Loss of bladder and/or bowel control.

 

Treatment:

 

Conscious Patient

  • Reassurance, tell patient not to move to prevent any further injury.
  • Maintain the position of the patient as you found them.
  • Using your hands, hold their head still keeping it in line with the upper body.
  • If on your own, support the head both sides, then dial 999.
  • Otherwise, get someone else to dial 999.

 

Unconscious Patient

  • Maintain an open airway.
  • Using your hands, hold their head still keeping it in line with the upper body.
  • If in any doubt that the patient may vomit, or you have to leave to dial 999, place them in the recovery position.
  • Keep the patient warm and still, constantly monitoring Airway & Breathing until the arrival of the paramedics

 

Managing the airway with spinal injuries

  • Jaw thrust.
  • Log roll.
  • Recovery position.

 

 

We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.

 

You might also be interested in our blog. In this post, Linda Hart talks about seizures and related first aid.

 

 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

 

Thursday, 19 April 2012

Shock

Shock:

Description:

The most important distinction to make between the different forms of shock is that one is PSYCHOLOGICAL (mental. And the other is PHYSIOLOGICAL (circulatory.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL SHOCK:

Can occur after a physical or emotional traumatic experience. It effects your state of mind and although this can give you symptoms such as palpitations and feeling faint it doesn't usually lead to serious physical collapse. However its effects can persist for years.

 

PHYSIOLOGICAL SHOCK:

This can be life threatening , common causes are:

  • Hypovolaemic shock (Low blood volume)
  • Cardiogenic shock (Heart fails to pump)
  • Anaphylactic shock (Severe reaction)
  • Septic shock (an overwhelming bacterial infections causes blood pressure to drop) fatal in more the 50% of cases

 

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Pale, cold, clammy skin
  • Rapid weak pulse
  • Fast, shallow breathing
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Sweating
  • Blue lips
  • Feeling faint

 

Treatment:

  • Treat the cause of the shock.
  • Lay the patient down flat and raise their legs.
  • Dial 999 for an ambulance (Dial 999.
  • Keep patient warm.
  • Do not allow the patient to eat, drink or smoke.
  • Loosen tight clothing.

 

As the brains oxygen supple decreases:

  • The patient will become restless and aggressive.
  • Yawning and gasping for air.
  • Unconscious.

 

CAUTION:

  • If patient becomes unconscious , place into recovery position.

 

We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.

 

You might also be interested in our blog. One of our more popular articles is about recognising a siezure.

 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

 

Tuesday, 6 March 2012

Primary & Secondary Survey

Primary & Secondary Survey:

PRIMARY SURVEY

The Primary Survey, or initial assessment, is designed to help the emergency responder detect immediate threats to life. Immediate life threats typically involve the patient's ABCs, and each is correct as it is found.

 

Life threatening problems MUST be identified first. This is to be completed in an order of priority to ensure the most important steps are undertaken in a logical order ensuring nothing is missed. This systematic approach uses the acronym DRABC.

 

D: Danger:

  • Ensure safety for yourself and any others. Do not put yourself at risk.
  • Remove danger or move the patient.
  • Information: Find out what has happened from witnesses if possible.

 

R: Response:

  • Assess the patient’s level of consciousness using the AVPU score (see levels of response AVPU).

Note: The presence of dementia in the elderly patient can make it hard to accurately assess the mental status and the responder should utilise family/carers to obtain baseline information.

 

A: Airway:

  • Look into their mouth, if any liquid is found place the patient on their side and drain the liquid (postural drainage).
  • Place patient back onto their back and open the airway using a head tilt/chin lift techniques.

 

B: Breathing:

  • Place your ear over the patient mouth and look, listen and feel for 10 seconds.
  • Ask yourself is the patient breathing normally, and not taking occasional gasps of air.
  • If patient is breathing normally carry out a secondary survey.
  • If in any doubt patient is breathing normally dial 999.
  • Asses the patients circulation (pulse and bleeding) if needed start chest compressions or defibrilation (see below).

 

C: Compressions

  • Start chest compressions depth 5-6cm, rate of 100-120 per minute with combined 2 inflations (mouth-to-mouth).
  • Continue at a 30 compression then 2 inflations (mouth-to-mouth is till gold standard treatment)
  • If unwilling to or unable to perform mouth-to-mouth continue with chest compressions only, until paramedics arrive.
  • Remember that the elderly often have an irregular pulse which is rarely life threatening, however the speed of the pulse i.e. too fast or too slow, can be life threatening.

 

Defibrillator:

  • Attach an AED (Automatic External Defibrillator) as soon as it arrives, if available at your workplace. Follow voice prompts.

 

IMPORTANT:

  • Patient should be on a hard surface to allow you to perform quality chest compressions, beds are not ideal. Be careful not to injure yourself removing then from a bed.

 

REMEMBER:

Any resuscitation is better than no resuscitation at all.

 

SECONDARY SURVEY

A focused history and physical exam should be performed after the initial assessment. It is assumed that the life threatening problems have been found and corrected. If that process involved CPR you may not get to this stage.

 

The focused history and physical exam includes examination that focuses on specific injury or medical complaints, or it may be a rapid examination of the entire body as follows, which should take no more than 3 minutes.

 

The secondary survey is a systematic approach to identify any bleeding or fractures. This system starts at the head and works down to legs.

 

  • Bleeding : Carryout out a head to toe check for bleeding.
  • Head & Neck: Clues to look out for are: bruising, swelling, deformity or bleeding (See Spinal Injuries).
  • Shoulders & Chest – Place both hands on opposite shoulders, run them down comparing both sides of the body. (See Fractures & Dislocation).
  • Abdomen & Pelvis: Place palm of hand onto abdomen and push gently checking for painful responses from patient.
  • Legs & Arms: Using both your hands compare both arms & legs for fractures, dislocations, look also for medic alerts.
  • Pockets: Look for clues, which might indicate any existing medical condition.
  • Recovery Position: If patient is unconscious place them in the recovery position (see Recovery Position).

 

It also includes obtaining a patient history and vital signs and the acronym used for this is SAMPLE:

 

S = Signs & symptoms

A = Allergies

M = Medications

P = Pertinent past medical history

L = Last oral intake

E = Events leading to the illness or injury

 
We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.
 
You might also be interested in our blog. One of our more popular articles is about quality or quantity when it comes to first aid training.
 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

Tuesday, 6 March 2012

Poisoning

 

Poisoning:

Description:

A poison also called a toxin is a substance which, if taken into the body insufficient quantity, may cause temporary or permanent damage.

 

Thee 4 main entry routes into the body are:

  • Inhaled:  When it is taken in to the lungs when we breath.
  • Ingested: Swallowed either accidently or on purpose.
  • Absorbed: Absorbed through the skin.
  • Injected: Injected into the tissues or a blood vessel.

 

Poisons are common in the home and the workplace .There are 2 major types:

 

1. Corrosive:                 

This group contains products that were never intended to be ingested or inhaled.

 

Examples are: Household products cleaning products such as bleach, dishwasher powered, acids, carbon monoxide, plane leaves, paint thinners and shampoo.

 

2. Non-Corrosive:

This group contains products that are to be ingested in small quantities, but which are harmful taken in large amounts.

 

Examples are: Pharmaceuticals, alcohol, drugs, medicinal herbs etc.

 

Possible Signs & Symptoms:

The effects of poisons are numerous as the poisons themselves .The mechanism of many poisons is still not understood but some poisons interfere with metabolism, whilst others destroy the liver and kidneys. Some depress the CNS (Central Nervous System) leading to coma and eventual respiratory and circulatory collapse. Severity of symptoms can range from headache to convulsions and death.

 

Look for:

  • Evidence of bottles , containers , plastic wrapping.
  • Tablets or drugs.
  • Syringes.

 

Other indicators of possible poisoning are:

  • Low level of consciousness (AVPU).
  • Headache.
  • Possible fitting.
  • Confusion or hallucination.
  • Nausea and/or Vomiting (if vomiting keep a sample for testing in the hospital to determine exact composition of poison.
  • Abdominal pains.
  • Burns around the lips and mouth.

 

Treatment:

Corrosive substance:

  • Personal safety – make sure it is safe.
  • Dilute the substance or wash it away.
  • Ingested substances-encourage patient to rinse out their mouth, then give frequent sips of milk or water.

 

Substances on the skin:

It’s important the first raiders are familiar with the corrosive substances used within the workplace and the correct treatment needed.

  • Make sure of your personal safety first.
  • Dry powder chemical can be carefully brushed of the skin, but make sure it is contained.
  • Irrigate the burn with lots of running water away, at least 20 minutes – remove contaminated clothing carefully whilst irrigating the burn.
  • If the patient’s eyes are affected, irrigate as above ensuring the water runs away from the unaffected eye.
  • Some workplace chemicals cannot be safely diluted with water but may require an ‘Antidote’. ALL first aiders should be familiar with the correct procedure and use of this antidote should an emergency occur.
  • If the patient becomes unconscious and is breathing normally, place in the recovery position and dial 999. Continually monitor patients airway and breathing until paramedics arrive.

 

Non-Corrosive substances:

  • Dial 999 and answer the questions from the ambulance operator.
  • If the patient becomes unconscious and is breathing normally, place in the recovery position.
  • Continually monitor patients airway and breathing until paramedics arrive.

 

Useful information for paramedics:

  • Evidence found in and around patient, containers or product information.
  • How much may have been take.
  • When it may have been take.

 

CAUTION:

  • NEVER make the patient vomit.
 
We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.
 
You might also be interested in our blog. One of our more popular articles is about quality or quantity when it comes to first aid training.
 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

 

Tuesday, 6 March 2012

Nose Bleeds

 

Nose Bleed:

 

Description:

Bleeding from the nose or EPISTAXIS occurs when blood vessels within the nostrils are injured (ruptured). They are very common in children and are usually mild and easily treated. However sometimes in older people or people with other medical problems such as blood disorders, bleeding can be severe. If bleeding is severe or mild bleeding does not stop within 20-30 minutes then get medical help quickly.

 

Causes:

The common site for nosebleed is just inside the entrance of the nostril on the middle hard part of the nose (Nasal Septum). The blood vessels are quite fragile here and can rupture easily for no apparent reason. This area is most likely to bleed following:

 

  • Picking
  • Blowing the nose
  • Colds and blocked stuffy nose
  • Minor injury to the nose
  • Cocaine use

 

In the above the bleeding tends to last only a short time and is usually easy to control however, it can be made more difficult if the person has heart failure, a blood clotting disorder or is taking anticoagulants (blood thinning drugs) such as warfarin or aspirin. Another underlying cause might well be high blood pressure.

 

Bleeding can occur further back in the nose and could be due to an uncommon disorder of the nose or serious injury.

 

Signs & Symptoms:

  • History of a blow, sneezing or pickin.
  • After a blow to the face/nose blood may appear to be thin and watery. This may indicate a fracture.
  • Patients visual appearance (holding nose or leaning back wards).

 

 

Treatment:

  • If the patient is feeling faint, sit then down, advise them to tilt head forward, allowing blood to   drain from the nostrils.
  • Ask patient to breath through their mout.
  • With a finger and thumb show them how to pinch the lower fleshy end soft of the nose for at least 10 minutes. (it is useless to put pressure on the root of the nose or the nose bones).
  • If available a cold flannel or compress around the nose is helpful as the cold helps the blood vessels to constrict (close down) and stop bleeding.
  • Advise patient if possible not to speak, swallow, cough, spit.
  • Give patient a cloth or tissue to mop up any blood.
  • After 10 minutes ask patient to release the pressure. If bleeding has not stopped reapply pressure.
  • If bleeding has not stopped after 30 minutes, or the patient is taking ‘anti-coagulant ‘drugs i.e. warfarin, take them to hospital.
  • Frequent nose bleeds requires a visit o their GP for further investigation.

 

CAUTION:

  • Do not tilt the patient head backwards, blood to the back of the throat may induce vomiting.
  • If the nosebleed last longer than 30 minutes take or send patient to hospita.
 
 
We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch.
 
You might also be interested in our blog How should we control bleeding?.
 

You can also sign-up to our newsletter on our homepage.

 

 

First Response. Training for life. Training to save a life.

 

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