The presence in tissues of harmful bacteria and their toxins, typically through infection of a wound.

Symptoms in children under five:

Go straight to A&E or call 999 if your child has any of these Symptoms:

  • Looks mottled, bluish or pale
  • Is very lethargic or difficult to wake
  • Feels abnormally cold to touch
  • Is breathing very fast
  • Has a rash that does not fade when you press it
  • Has a fit or convulsion


If your child has any of the symptoms listed below, is getting worse or is sicker than you'd expect (even if their temperature falls), trust your instincts and seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111.



  • Temperature over 38C in babies under 3 months
  • Temperature over 39C in babies aged three to 6 months
  • Any high temperature in a child who cannot be encouraged to show interest in anything
  • Low temperature (below 36C – check 3 times in a 10-minute period)


  • Finding it much harder to breathe than normal – looks like hard work
  • Making "grunting" noises with every breath
  • Can't say more than a few words at once (for older children who normally talk)
  • Breathing that obviously "pauses"


  • Not had a wee or wet nappy for 12 hours

Eating and drinking

  • New baby under 1 month old with no interest in feeding
  • Not drinking for more than 8 hours (when awake)
  • Bile-stained (green), bloody or black vomit/sick

Activity and body

  • Soft spot on a baby's head is bulging
  • Eyes look "sunken"
  • Child cannot be encouraged to show interest in anything
  • Baby is floppy
  • Weak, "whining" or continuous crying in a younger child
  • Older child who's confused
  • Not responding or very irritable
  • Stiff neck, especially when trying to look up and down

If your child has any of these symptoms, is getting worse or is sicker than you'd expect (even if their temperature falls), trust your instincts and seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111.

Symptoms in older children and adults:

Early symptoms of sepsis may include:

  • A high temperature (fever) or low body temperature
  • Chills and shivering
  • A fast heartbeat
  • Fast breathing

Many of the symptoms of sepsis are also associated with meningitis. The first symptoms of meningitis are often fever, vomiting, headache and feeling unwell.

Septic shock

In some cases, symptoms of more severe sepsis or septic shock (when your blood pressure drops to a dangerously low level) develop soon after.


These can include:

  • Feeling dizzy or faint
  • A change in mental state – such as confusion or disorientation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Severe muscle pain
  • Severe breathlessness
  • Less urine production than normal – for example, not urinating for a day
  • Cold, clammy and pale or mottled skin
  • Loss of consciousness

When to get medical help

Seek medical advice urgently from NHS 111 if you've recently had an infection or injury and you have possible early signs of sepsis. If sepsis is suspected, you'll usually be referred to hospital for further diagnosis and treatment. Severe sepsis and septic shock are medical emergencies. If you think you or someone in your care has one of these conditions, go straight to A&E or call 999.


Reference: NHS


Please feel free to browse all the entries in our free A-Z, or all the useful articles in our blog.


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